‚ÄčSudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) - Information Sheet



What is sudden cardiac arrest? Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) is the

sudden onset of an abnormal and lethal heart rhythm, causing the heart to stop
beating and the individual to collapse. SCA is the leading cause of death in the U.S.
afflicting over 300,000 individuals per year.


SCA is also the leading cause of sudden death
in young athletes during sports


What causes sudden cardiac arrest? SCA in young athletes is usually caused by
a structural or electrical disorder of the heart. Many of these

conditions are inherited (genetic) and can develop as an adolescent or young adult.
SCA is more likely during exercise or physical activity, placing

student-athletes with undiagnosed heart conditions at greater risk. SCA also can occur
from a direct blow to the chest by a firm projectile (baseball, softball, lacrosse ball, or
hockey puck) or by chest contact from another player

(called "commotio cordis").



While a heart condition may have no warning signs, some young athletes may have
symptoms but neglect to tell an adult. If any of the following symptoms are present, a
cardiac evaluation by a physician is recommended:

· Passing out during exercise

· Chest pain with exercise

· Excessive shortness of breath with exercise

· Palpitations (heart racing for no reason)

· Unexplained seizures

·A family member with early onset heart disease or sudden death from a heart
condition before the age of 40


How to prevent and treat sudden cardiac arrest? Some heart conditions at risk
for SCA can be detected by a thorough heart screening evaluation. However, all
schools and teams should be prepared to respond to a cardiac emergency. Young
athletes who suffer SCA are collapsed and unresponsive and may appear to have brief
seizure-like activity or abnormal breathing (gasping). SCA can be effectively treated by
immediate recognition, prompt CPR, and quick access to a defibrillator (AEO).


AEDs are safe, portable devices that read and analyze the heart rhythm and provide
an electric shock (if necessary) to restore a normal heart rhythm.


Remember, to save a life: recognize SCA, call 9-1-1, begin CPR,
and use
an AED as soon as possible!







Sudden Cardiac Arrest


·       Collapsed and unresponsive

·       Abnormal breathing

·       Seizure-like activity


2. CALL 9-1-1

• Call for help and for an AED


3. CPR


·       Begin chest compressions


·       Push hardl push fast
(100 per minute)


4. AED


• Use AED as soon as possible




·       Continue CPR and AED until
EMS arrives



Be Prepared!
Every Second






Center For Sports Cardiology





Peninsula Lacrosse Association Concussion Information Sheet


A concussion is a brain injury and all brain injuries are serious. They are caused by a bump,
blow, or jolt to the head, or by a blow to another part of the body with the force transmitted to
the head. They can range from mild to severe and can disrupt the way the brain normally works.
Even though most concussions are mild, all concussions are potentially serious and may

result in complications including prolonged brain damage and death if not recognized and
managed properly.
In other words, even a "ding" or a bump on the head can be serious. You

can't see a concussion and most sports concussions occur without loss of consciousness. Signs
and symptoms of concussion may show up right after the injury or can take hours or days to fully
appear. If your child reports any symptoms of concussion, or if you notice the symptoms or signs
of concussion yourself, seek medical attention right away.


Symptoms may include one or more of the following:




"Pressure in head"

"Don't feel right"

Nausea or vomiting

Fatigue or low energy

Neck pain


Balance problems or dizziness

Nervousness or anxiety

Blurred, double, or fuzzy vision


Sensitivity to light or noise

More emotional

Feeling sluggish or slowed down


Feeling foggy or groggy

Concentration or memory problems



(forgetting game plays)

Change in sleep patterns

Repeating the same question/comment

Signs observed by teammates, parents and coaches include:

·        Appears dazed

·        Vacant facial expression

·        Confused about assignment

·        Forgets plays

·        Is unsure of game, score, or opponent

·        Moves clumsily or displays incoordination

·        Answers questions slowly

·        Slurred speech

·        Shows behavior or personality changes

·        Can't recall events prior to hit

·        Can't recall events after hit

·        Seizures or convulsions

·        Any change in typical behavior or personality

·        Loses consciousness

Adapted from the CDC and the 3[(1 International Conference on Concussion in Sport
Document created 611512009


Peninsula Lacrosse Association
Concussion Information Sheet

What can happen if my child keeps on playing with a concussion or returns too soon?

Athletes with the signs and symptoms of concussion should be removed from play immediately.
Continuing to play with the signs and symptoms of a concussion leaves the young athlete
especially vulnerable to greater injury. There is an increased risk of significant damage from a
concussion for a period of time after that concussion occurs, particularly if the athlete suffers
another concussion before completely recovering from the first one. This can lead to prolonged
recovery, or even to severe brain swelling (second impact syndrome) with devastating and even
fatal consequences. It is well known that adolescent or teenage athletes will often fail to report
symptoms of injuries. Concussions are no different. As a result, education of administrators,
coaches, parents and students is the key to student-athlete's safety.

If you think your child has suffered a concussion

Any athlete even suspected of suffering a concussion should be removed from the game or
practice immediately. No athlete may return to activity after an apparent head injury or
concussion, regardless of how mild it seems or how quickly symptoms clear, without medical
clearance. Close observation of the athlete should continue for several hours. The new "Zackery
Lystedt Law" in Washington now requires the consistent and uniform implementation of long
and well-established return-to-play concussion guidelines that have been recommended for
several years:

"a youth athlete who is suspected of sustaining a concussion or head injury in a practice
or game shall be removed from competition at that time"


••... may not return to play until the athlete is evaluated by a licensed heath care provider
trained in the evaluation and management of concussion and received written clearance to
return to play from that health care provider".

You should also inform your child's coach if you think that your child may have a concussion.
Remember it's better to miss one game than miss the whole season. And when in doubt, the
athlete sits out.


If you child has been diagnosed with a concussion they MUST follow a progressive return
to participation protocol (under the supervision of an approved health care provider)
before full participation is authorized.

The return to play protocol may not begin until the participant is no longer showing signs
or symptoms of concussion. Once symptom free, the athlete may begin a progressive
return to play. This progression begins with light aerobic exercise only to increase the

heart rate (5-10 minutes of light jog or exercise bike) and progresses each day as long as the
child remains symptom free. If at any time symptoms return, the athlete is removed from

Adapted from the CDC and the 3 rd International Conference on Concussion in Sport
Document created 611512009